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AVOID MISCARRIAGE RISK KNOW YOUR RHESUS.

RHESUS FACTOR INCOMPATIBILITY IS A LEADING CAUSE OF MISCARRIAGE!   
Rhesus Factor is an antigen that exists on the
surface of red blood cells in most people (about
85% of humans). It is also referred to as Rh
Factor. People who have the Rh have
“positive” (+) blood types, such as A+, O+ or B+
are said to be rhesus Factor positive, while those
who have the Rh “negative” (-) blood types, such
as A–, O– or AB– are said to be rhesus factor
negative . The “+” and “-” after the blood group
is the Rhesus factor. Generally, we have A+, A–,
B+, B–, AB+, AB–, O+ and O–. Rhesus factor is
genetic in nature. It is inherited from the
parents, emphatically the father.

How does Rhesus Factor cause miscarriage?
If a Rh– woman is impregnated by a man with
Rh–, there wouldn’t be any problem. However, if
a Rh– woman is impregnated by a man with Rh+,
there would be a problem if the baby inherits Rh+
from the father . We have here what is medically
called Rhesus Factor Incompatibility. The baby
would obviously be Rh+. During child birth, once
the baby’s Rh+ comes in contact with the
woman Rh- during delivery, the antibodies are
immediately activated by the woman’s body’s
immune system.

The activated antibodies would see the new Rh+
as foreign body or a threat and consequently
they would be at alert to attack and get rid of
the foreign body. Unfortunately as such, after
this particular child birth, the woman would keep
having miscarriages because the activated
antibodies would see subsequent Rh+
pregnancies as foreign bodies and would keep
fighting and taking them off.

Women with Rh activated antibodies are said to
be Rh sensitized and once these antibodies are
activated , they can never be deactivated until
the woman dies. Rh induced antibodies are
activated in a Rh- woman by child birth, abortion,
miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy.

If a Rh– woman commits an abortion for a Rh+
man and the antibodies are activated in her
system, the woman might end up childless
throughout her life except if she later marries
another man with with the same Rh–. The
possibility of a Rh– woman finding a Rh– man is
slim as about 85% of human beings are Rh+.
This is a warning to our young girls who commits
abortions all in the name of boyfriend-girlfriend
relationships.

If you’re a woman with Rh– and your fiance is
Rh+, and you haven’t committed abortion for him
and you don’t want to leave him, then, you need
to take note of the following:
In order to prevent the activation of the
antibodies, doctors would give women in this
category an injection called Rhogam during and
after pregnancy to prevent spontaneous abortion
due to Rhesus factor incompatibility. 
The injection is normally administered 28 weeks into
pregnancy, 72 hours after delivery, after ectopic
pregnancy, miscarriage or abortion. If the
injection is not administered and the antibodies
are activated, they would never be deactivated
again!

In many African cultures up till today, women
who are so unfortunate to find themselves
having serial spontaneous abortions due to
Rhesus factor incompatibility are considered
witches by some of their people. Some of the
women would accuse their in-laws of being
behind their predicament.

So, if you’re a woman with Rh– , you need to be
very careful. It might be difficult for you to get a
husband with a Rh– because about 85% of
human beings are Rh+. So, in order not to find
yourself in the aforementioned problem, put all
that have been said at the back of your mind
and go for genetic counselling. If you have a
daughter or a sister with Rh–, counsel them on
Rhesus Factor Incompatibility and the dangers
lying therein.
It should also be noted that a Rh– person(man
or woman) cannot receive blood donation from a
Rh+ person even if they have the same blood
group. The consequence of such blood
transfusion is fatal. It would lead to death as the
blood would clot. This is due to the
incompatibility in their Rhesus factor.

 

KNOW YOUR RHESUS FACTOR TODAY!!!
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER!
What is my rhesus status?
When you have your first antenatal appointment you will be offered a number of routine blood tests. One of these tests is to find out your blood group (A, B, AB or O) and your rhesus status (positive or negative). 
Your rhesus factor is fixed by your genes. If you’re rhesus positive (RhD positive), it means that a protein (D antigen) is found on the surface of your red blood cells. If you do not have the D antigen, you will be rhesus negative (RhD negative).  Most people are rhesus positive.
What does it mean if I’m rhesus negative?
Rhesus status only matters if you are a rhesus-negative mum who is carrying a rhesus-positive baby. Your child will have inherited her rhesus-positive status from her rhesus-positive dad. 
If some of your baby’s blood enters your bloodstream, your immune system may react to the D antigen in your baby’s blood. It will be treated as a foreign invader and your body will produce antibodies against it. This is known as a sensitising event or being sensitised. 
Sensitising is not usually harmful if it is your first pregnancy. But it can cause problems if you become pregnant againwith another rhesus-positive baby. The antibodies that your body made in your first pregnancy can quickly multiply, cross the placenta and attack the blood cells of your baby.
The good news is that, because of routine injections of a substance called anti-D immunoglobulin (anti-D) to guard against the harmful effects of antibodies, complications are rare. 
However, if you are not treated with anti-D, the immune response in your second pregnancy will be stronger than the first pregnancy and can cause rhesus disease in your baby. Your antibodies start to attack your baby’s blood cells during pregnancy and can carry on attacking them for a few months after the birth.
When your baby’s blood cells are attacked, rhesus disease causes anaemia. If the anaemia becomes severe, it can lead to life-threatening problems for your baby, such as heart failure, fluid retention and swelling. 
After she’s born, your baby’s liver won’t be able to cope with the volume of blood cells that need breaking down. She may then become jaundiced, which is called haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), or haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). 
In severe cases, HDFN can cause permanent brain damage and neurological problems in your baby, such as cerebral palsy, and physical or speech problems. 
Don’t worry. Your midwife will take a sample of blood at your booking appointment which will tell her if you’re rhesus negative. You’ll then be offered routine anti-D injections as part of your antenatal care.
What do anti-D injections do?
Having an injection of anti-D can prevent your system from making antibodies. It’s important to prevent antibodies from being made, because once they’re produced, they stay in your blood forever. 
Anti-D works by rapidly destroying any fetal blood cells in your circulation before you can make antibodies. This means that you will not have antibodies in your system to cause haemolytic disease (HDFN) in this or your next pregnancy.
Your midwife will inject anti-D into a muscle, usually your upper arm.
You should be offered an anti-D jab at 28 weeks and 34 weeks of pregnancy. Some maternity units offer one higher-dose injection of anti-D at 28 weeks to 30 weeks pregnancy instead.
You should also have anti-D within 72 hours of any possible sensitising event, when your baby’s blood could mix with yours. See the next section for more information on what a sensitising event could be.
If you are rhesus negative and your baby’s dad is rhesus negative too, then your midwife is likely to offer you anti-D anyway. Your baby’s dad can have a blood test to check his rhesus status, if he’s not already aware of it from a previous health check or from being a blood donor. But, rarely, a dad may test as rhesus negative, while actually having traces of the D antigen, or a variant of the D antigen in his blood.
How could my baby’s blood get into my blood?
Your baby’s rhesus positive blood would not normally mix with your rhesus negative blood at any time during your pregnancy. However, you may experience small, unnoticed, or “silent”, bleeds from the placenta. 
This usually happens in the last three months of pregnancy. As it’s silent, you won’t pass any blood through your vagina, so you won’t be aware of the bleed. 
There are more obvious ways your blood and your baby’s blood could mix (a sensitising event). You should tell your midwife if you have any of the following:
Vaginal bleeding after 20 weeks.A threatened miscarriage, usually signalled by bleeding and cramps in early pregnancy, although the pregnancy then continues.Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) oramniocentesis.A procedure performed to turn breech babies to a head-down position. This procedure is called an external cephalic version (ECV).A blow to your tummy.
Your blood and your baby’s blood can come into contact with each other at the birth whether you have a straightforward vaginal birth, an assisted birth or give birth by caesarean section
What happens if I already have antibodies in my blood?
Your midwife will check for antibodies when you have your routine blood tests in early pregnancy, and again at 28 weeks
Sometimes, a previous termination,ectopic pregnancy or miscarriage may have caused a sensitising event without you realising. 
If antibodies are detected in your blood, you will not be given anti-D. Anti-D is only useful in preventing antibodies from being made. It cannot remove antibodies that are already there. Instead, your midwife will refer you to a fetal medicine specialist. 
Your specialist will monitor your pregnancy to watch for signs of anaemia in your baby. In severe cases, anaemia can be treated by blood transfusions to your baby, even before she is born. 
Transfusion has good results in most cases. However, it’s better for some babies to be born early using induction or caesarean section so that treatment can start earlier. 
After your baby is born, she is likely to be cared for in a neonatal unit. Jaundice can be treated with phototherapy and more blood transfusions. These treatments will help your baby’s liver to break down the necessary blood cells. 
Most cases of rhesus disease are mild and respond well to minimal treatments. However, if severe, your baby may also need an injection of a solution of antibodies to help stop her blood cells from being destroyed.
Where does anti-D come from, and is it safe?
Anti-D comes from plasma, the clear yellowish fluid part of blood. The blood comes from human donors who have to pass at least two interviews before they are accepted as donors. The blood is screened for HIVhepatitis B and hepatitis C. It is also treated to inactivate any viruses, such as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). 
Anti-D won’t harm your baby. Allergic reactions to anti-D in pregnant women are rare and unlikely to be serious. However, if you know you have an allergy to immunoglobulin A (IgA), you may develop a severe allergic or anaphylactic reaction, as the anti-D injection may contain trace amounts of IgA. 
You should stay in the health centre or doctor’s surgery for 20 minutes after having the injection and say immediately if you feel unwell.
What happens after my baby is born?
When your baby is born, a sample of her blood will be taken from the umbilical cord. This is so that her blood group and rhesus status can be determined. 
If your baby is rhesus positive, you will be given another injection of anti-D. This must be given within 72 hours of birth so that your immune response is not triggered. Your midwife will also ask to take a sample of blood from a vein in your arm just after you give birth, to look for antibodies. 
If large amounts of fetal blood are found in your system, you may need a bigger dose of anti-D. If your baby is rhesus negative and you are too, then you will not need to have anti-D.
PEOPLE ALSO ASK
What happens when mother is Rh positive and baby is Rh negative?
During pregnancy, red blood cells from the unborn baby can cross into the mother’s blood through the placenta. If the mother is Rh-negative, her immune system treats Rh-positive fetal cells as if they were a foreign substance. … They destroy the baby’s circulating red blood cells.Feb 16, 2017
Rh incompatibility: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
https://medlineplus.gov › ency › article
What blood type rejects pregnancy?
This condition is referred to as Rh-incompatibility. It is NOT an issue in 1st pregnancies (miscarriages & abortions do count as pregnancies). If you are O negative they’ll give you a RhoGam shot in your 3rd trimester, or if you are getting an amnio or CVS.
O-Negative Blood Type & Pregnancy | Berkeley Parents Network
https://www.berkeleyparentsnetwork.org › …
What happens if mother and baby blood mix?
The mother’s blood does not normally mix with the baby’s blood during the pregnancy, unless there has been a procedure (such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling) or vaginal bleeding. During delivery, however, there is a good chance that some of the baby’s blood cells will enter the mother’s bloodstream.
Rhesus-negative blood and pregnancy – myDr.com.au
www.mydr.com.au › heart-stroke › rhesu…
What is Rh factor and why is it important?
Rh factor is a blood protein that plays a critical role in some pregnancies. People without Rh factor are known as Rh negative, while people with the Rh factor are Rh positive. If a woman who is Rh negative is pregnant with a fetus who is Rh positive, her body will make antibodies against the fetus’s blood.
Rh Factor – Importance Of The Rh Factor, Rh Factor In Pregnancy …
science.jrank.org › pages › Rh-Factor
Which parent determines the blood type of the child?
Each biological parent donates one of their two ABO alleles to their child. A mother who is blood type O can only pass an O allele to her son or daughter. A father who is blood type AB could pass either an A or a B allele to his son or daughter.
Blood Types Tutorial – The Biology Project – University of Arizona
www.biology.arizona.edu › inherited
What is the rarest blood type?
What is the Rarest Blood Type? According to the American Red Cross the rarest is AB(-), present in 1% of the Caucasians, in African Americans it is even rarer. B(-) and O(-) are also very rare, each accounting for less than 5% of the world’s population.Sep 28, 2012
Blood Type Chart: Facts and Information on Blood Group Types …
https://www.disabled-world.com › blood-…
CAN A+ and O+ have a baby?
As you can see, only one out of the eight boxes is OO -/-. That means each child of these parents has a 1 in 8 chance to have a baby with an O- blood type. Each of their kids will also have a 3 in 8 chance of having A+, a 3 in 8 chance of being O+, and a 1 in 8 chance for being A-.Jul 24, 2013
A+ parent, O+ parents, O- child – Understanding Genetics – The …
https://genetics.thetech.org › parent-o-par…
What blood type can harm a baby?
Problems with the Rh factor occur when the mother’s Rh factor is negative and the baby’s is positive. Sometimes, an incompatibility may occur when the mother is blood type O and the baby is either A or B.
Blood Types in Pregnancy – Stanford Children’s Health
www.stanfordchildrens.org › topic
Is it good to be Rh positive?
Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of red blood cells. If your blood has the protein, you’re Rh positive. … Having an Rh negative blood type is not an illness and usually does not affect your health. However, it can affect your pregnancy.Jun 14, 2018
Rh factor blood test – Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org › about › pa…
What are the 3 rarest blood types?
Answer: The approximate distribution of blood types in the U.S. population is as follows:
O-positive: 38 percent.
O-negative: 7 percent.
A-positive: 34 percent.
A-negative: 6 percent.
B-positive: 9 percent.
B-negative: 2 percent.
AB-positive: 3 percent.
AB-negative: 1 percent.
The Rarest and Most Common Blood Types by Percentage
https://www.livescience.com › 36559-co…

 

What does O Rh positive mean?
One of these tests is to find out your blood group (A, B, AB or O) and your rhesus status (positive or negative) . Your rhesus factor is fixed by your genes. If you’re rhesus positive (RhD positive), it means that a protein (D antigen) is found on the surface of your red blood cells. … Most people are rhesus positive .
What is my rhesus status, and how will it affect my pregnancy …
https://www.babycentre.co.uk › what-is-…

 

Can you be a positive and Rh negative?
Everyone has 2 Rh “Factors” in their blood, they can be either positive (+) or negative (-). The only way to be Rh negative is for both parents to have at least 1 negative (-) “factor” and for you to have receive it from both of them. If you received one Rh+ “factor” you are Rh+.
The Rh-Negative Registry – Blood Type and Rh-Negative 101
www.rhnegativeregistry.com › rh_negati…

 

How is the Rh factor inherited?
The Rh factor genetic information is also inherited from our parents, but it is inherited independently of the ABO blood type alleles. There are 2 different alleles for the Rh factor known as Rh+ and Rh-. Someone who is “Rh positive” or “Rh+” has at least one Rh+ allele, but could have two.Oct 23, 1997
Rh factor – The Biology Project – University of Arizona
www.biology.arizona.edu › blood_types

Which blood types are compatible?

In living donation, the following blood types are compatible:
Donors with blood type A… can donate to recipients with blood types A and AB.
Donors with blood type B… can donate to recipients with blood types B and AB.
Donors with blood type AB… can donate to recipients with blood type AB only.
More items…
What Blood Types Match? | National Kidney Foundation
https://www.kidney.org › livingdonors
Can O positive receive from any blood type?
Blood Type O carries both antibodies, making blood type O group compatible to receive plasma from groups O, A, B and AB. However, blood type O plasma can only be given to type O recipients. The individuals who are compatible in receiving platelets from an O+ donor are O+ recipients.
10 O Positive Blood Type Facts | Thrombocytes
www.thrombocyte.com › o-positive-bloo…

 

What is the best blood type?

Also, Rh-negative blood is given to Rh-negative patients, and Rh-positive or Rh-negative blood may be given to Rh-positive patients. The universal red cell donor has Type O negative blood. The universal plasma donor has Type AB blood.
Blood Types & Groups Chart | A, B, AB & O | Red Cross Blood Services
https://www.redcrossblood.org › blood-t…

 

Why is it called Rhesus factor?
Rh factor is also called “Rhesus factor” because it was first discovered in the blood of Rhesus monkeys (small monkeys from India often used for experimentation). … A given individual either has the antigen already in their blood (they are Rh positive), or they don’t (they are Rh negative).
Rh factor | Encyclopedia.com
https://www.encyclopedia.com › medicine

What blood type is Rh negative?

The red cells in your blood can be A, B, AB, or O. The red blood cells also have a protein that is called Rh on the surface of the cell. Your blood can be Rh positive, which means that you have the Rh protein, or Rh negative, which means that you do not have the Rh protein.
Rhâ•’Negative Blood Type and Pregnancy – Wiley Online Library
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com › jmwh

 

What blood type will baby be?

Each parent gives one of their two ABO alleles to the child (3). Mother with AB blood type can either pass the A or B allele to the baby. Likewise, a father with O blood type can only pass O allele to the baby. If both parents belong to the blood group O, the child will also belong to the O blood group.
Child Blood Type Calculator | Predict Your Baby Blood Group
www.momjunction.com › child-blood-ty…

Do siblings have the same blood type?

There is a possibility that the siblings may have the same blood group. There is also another possibility that the siblings may have different blood groups. Everyone inherits two alleles of the gene, one from each parent. … 3.Two parents with B blood type can produce a child with either B or O blood type.
Should brothers or sisters from the same parents have same blood …
https://www.quora.com › Should-brother…

What foods should O positive blood types avoid?

Type O blood: A high-protein diet heavy on lean meat, poultry, fish, and vegetables, and light on grains, beans, and dairy. D’Adamo also recommends various supplements to help with tummy troubles and other issues he says people with type O tend to have.
Blood Type Diet: Eating for Types O, A, B, & AB – WebMD
https://www.webmd.com › diet › blood-t…

What is so special about O negative blood?

As an O Negative blood donor you have a particularly unique opportunity to help people in emergency situations. O Negative blood cells are called “universal” meaning they can be transfused to almost any patient in need, and only 6.6% of the population has O Negative blood.
O Negative – The Blood Connection
https://thebloodconnection.org › o-negati…

Which blood type is most likely to get cancer?
A 2012 study from Harvard University found people with non-O blood also happen to have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. But those with type AB blood were the most at-risk overall, demonstrating a 23 percent greater chance of suffering from heart disease than type O subjects.Sep 24, 2014
6 Ways Blood Type Can Influence Personal Health: From Mild Stress …
https://www.medicaldaily.com › 6-ways-…

 

What blood type is prone to diabetes?
Then, the authors combined blood types with Rh factors. The result: relative to women with O negative blood, diabetes risk was 17 percent greater among A positive women, 22 percent higher among A negative women, 26 percent greater among AB positive women, and 35 percent higher among B positive women.Dec 18, 2014
Some Blood Types Might Raise Type 2 Diabetes Risk: Study – …
https://www.webmd.com › diabetes › news

 

Can an O negative mother have an O positive child?
The baby has O blood type. … This means that these are the possible genes and their blood types: Now imagine the two positive parents on the right who both have one positive version of the RHD gene and one negative version. They both have a positive blood type but carry a hidden negative version of the gene.Jul 24, 2013
A+ parent, O+ parents, O- child – Understanding Genetics – The …
https://genetics.thetech.org › parent-o-par…

 

Can two Type O Parents have a Type A baby?
Two parents with B blood type can produce a child with either B or O blood type. One parent with A and another with B can produce a child with A, B, AB or O blood types. If one parent has A and another has AB, they can either produce a child with A, B or AB blood types.
BLOOD TYPE CHART_CHILD FATHER MOTHER-PATERNITY …
https://canadiancrc.com › Paternity_deter…

 

What happens when mother is Rh positive and baby is Rh negative?
During pregnancy, red blood cells from the unborn baby can cross into the mother’s blood through the placenta. If the mother is Rh-negative, her immune system treats Rh-positive fetal cells as if they were a foreign substance. … They destroy the baby’s circulating red blood cells.Feb 16, 2017
Rh incompatibility: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
https://medlineplus.gov › ency › article

 

What blood type requires a shot when pregnant?
A blood test can provide you with your blood type and Rh factor. Antibody screen is another blood test that can show if a Rh-negative woman has developed antibodies to Rh-positive blood. An injection of Rh immunoglobulin (RhIg), a blood product that can prevent sensitization of a Rh-negative mother.Mar 2, 2017
Rh Factor – American Pregnancy Association
americanpregnancy.org › rh-factor

Type of the child?
Each biological parent donates one of their two ABO alleles to their child. A mother who is blood type O can only pass an O allele to her son or daughter. A father who is blood type AB could pass either an A or a B allele to his son or daughter.
Blood Types Tutorial – The Biology Project – University of Arizona
www.biology.arizona.edu › inherited

 

What is the rarest blood type?
What is the Rarest Blood Type? According to the American Red Cross the rarest is AB(-), present in 1% of the Caucasians, in African Americans it is even rarer. B(-) and O(-) are also very rare, each accounting for less than 5% of the world’s population.Sep 28, 2012
Blood Type Chart: Facts and Information on Blood Group Types …
https://www.disabled-world.com › blood-…

 

Is it good to be Rh positive?
Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of red blood cells. If your blood has the protein, you’re Rh positive. … Having an Rh negative blood type is not an illness and usually does not affect your health. However, it can affect your pregnancy.Jun 14, 2018
Rh factor blood test – Mayo Clinic
https://www.mayoclinic.org › about › pa…

 

What is the purpose of the Rh factor?
Rh factor is an antigen, a substance which stimulates the production of antibodies to fight foreign invaders, such as viruses, bacteria and transplanted organs. A given individual either has the antigen already in their blood (they are Rh positive), or they don’t (they are Rh negative).
Rh Factor – used, first, blood, body, produced, function, history, History …
www.discoveriesinmedicine.com › Ra-Thy

Which is the best blood type?
Similarly people with blood types A, B, or AB are at a greater risk for coronary heart disease than people with blood type O, according to a study from Harvard School of Public Health. Other research has linked non-O blood to greater inflammation, which may help explain the connection.Oct 25, 2015
What Your Blood Type Means For Your Health | HuffPost
https://www.huffingtonpost.com › entry

 

Can an O positive parents have an O negative child?
Suffice it to say that A, B and AB are dominant over O, so children will be type O only if they inherit O-type genes from both parents. … In the very simplest terms, you inherit a positive or a negative Rh type from each parent. So, you could wind up with two positives, two negatives or a positive-negative mix.Jan 20, 2015
Could children of O-positive parents be O-negative? Positively …
https://www.bnd.com › article17735078

 

What if mother is Rh positive and father is Rh negative?
The Rh factor is a protein on the covering of the red blood cells. … There can be a problem when an Rh negative mother has a baby with an Rh positive father. If the baby’s Rh factor is positive, like his or her father’s, this can be an issue if the baby’s red blood cells cross to the Rh negative mother.
Rh Disease – Health Encyclopedia – University of Rochester Medical …
https://www.urmc.rochester.edu › content
Can an O positive marry an O positive?
Rh-positive blood is more common than Rh-negative. there is no problem for you to marry a partner with the same blood type/grouping as yourself. … A woman is at risk when she has a negative Rh factor (example: O-) and her partner has a positive Rh factor (example: O +).
Marrying a man with the same blood group is it harmful? – DoctorSpring
https://www.doctorspring.com › question
Can a child have a different blood group from the parents?

While a child could have the same blood type as one of his/her parents, it doesn’t always happen that way. For example, parents with AB and O blood types can either have children with blood type A or blood type B. These two types are definitely different than parents’ blood types! … They will match both parents.Dec 6, 2016
Parent children different blood type – Understanding Genetics – Tech …
https://genetics.thetech.org › parent-child…

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